I.1 relates unwittingly through sound

General observation

Attempting to interact with children and young people through sound - prompting them by making sounds, responding to any sounds that they may produce and/or modelling interaction for them to copy - has no apparent effect.

Interpretation

Children and young people have no sense of agency between ‘self’ and ‘other’ in the domain of sound.

I1A Practitioners seek to stimulate interaction by prompting with sounds and responding empathetically to any sounds that are made

Children and young people do not respond to practitioners’ efforts to interact through making sounds, and empathetic practitioner responses produce no discernible reaction.

Strategies

Practitioners should follow their instincts, since, as humans, they will intuitively know how to communicate with young children, simplifying what they do while exaggerating the salient features of their vocal efforts, using a sing-song quality in their voices, and employing a good deal of repetition. Those seeking to interact can try different approaches, ranging from the gentle and the subtle to the loud and the brash, bearing in mind that a young person’s threshold of arousal may vary from one occasion to another. In any case, practitioners need to be sensitive to any responses that may appear to be evoked, however idiosyncratic, all the while seeking to interpret a child’s personal sounds and other reactions as attempts to make contact, reacting in turn to what he or she does. Effective working at this level is all about keen observation and empathy. Necessarily, teachers, therapists and carers must start ‘where the child is at’. It may well be necessary to wait, allowing time and space for the young person to act, while constantly being prepared to interpret any sound or other gesture that she or he may make as a signal in the context of early communication. As soon as anything happens, offer an appropriate response, remembering that the purpose is to support the child or young person in developing a sense of agency in the context of another. Intuition may suggest repeating (or varying) the sound that the child has made – though reactions should also be of a kind that practitioners consider the young person may potentially find stimulating, enjoy, and so wish to experience again. It may be important to balance consistency in responses with one’s intuitions as an interactive human being, in which variety is important too. As ever, it is a question of being imaginative but systematic.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Practitioners prompt with at least one type of sound-making and respond empathetically in one way or more
  3. Practitioners prompt with at least two types of sound-making and respond empathetically in two ways or more
  4. Practitioners prompt with at least three types of sound-making and respond empathetically in three ways or more
  5. Practitioners prompt with at least four types of sound-making and respond empathetically in four ways or more
  6. Practitioners prompt with at least four types of sound-making and respond empathetically in four ways or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Opportunities for interaction are rarely integrated into everyday programmes, and/or there are sessions devoted to sound- and music-making, which promote interaction, around once a fortnight or less
  2. Opportunities for interaction are occasionally integrated into everyday programmes, and/or there are sessions devoted to sound- and music-making, which promote interaction, around once a week
  3. Opportunities for interaction are regularly integrated into everyday programmes, which are coherently related to sound- and music-making sessions that promote interaction, and occur around twice a week
  4. Opportunities for interaction are frequently integrated into everyday programmes, which are coherently related to sound- and music-making sessions that promote interaction, and occur 3 or 4 times a week
  5. Opportunities for interaction are consistently integrated into everyday programmes, which are coherently related to sound- and music-making sessions that promote interaction, and occur every day
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

As Matthew vocalises his teacher responds empathetically, imitating his vocalisation as well as expanding on it. Mathew's repeated vocalisation, after he has heard the teacher, also indicates that he vocalises in response to what he hears (I.2.A), demonstrating that his level of musical development lies at and between both Levels 1 and Levels 2 of the Sounds of Intent framework.

The teacher responds to Haley's hand movement across the drum by imitating the same movement, creating a similar sound. She also prompts the interaction by singing 'Listen to Haley'.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 8

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


I1B practitioners model interaction through sound

Children and young people show no signs of responding to the interactions that are modelled.

Strategies

Practitioners model simple interaction for the child or young person concerned – possibly as equal partners in a ‘give and take’ scenario, or with one taking the part of the child in a simulated teacher-pupil/therapist-client exchange. The modelling may start very simply with the first party producing a single sound followed immediately by the second party repeating it. From this most straightforward of situations, more extended and complex sequences of events may follow, involving turn-taking with a range of different sounds and modes of imitation.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Practitioners model at least one form of interaction
  3. Practitioners model at least two forms of interaction
  4. Practitioners model at least three forms of interaction
  5. Practitioners model at least four forms of interaction
  6. Practitioners model at least five forms of interaction
Gauging consistency
  1. Practitioners rarely model interaction through sound, around once a fortnight or less
  2. Practitioners occasionally model interaction through sound, around once a week
  3. Practitioners regularly model interaction through sound, around twice a week
  4. Practitioners frequently model interaction through sound, around three or four times a week
  5. Practitioners consistently model interaction through sound, every day
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

The teacher and practitioners model interaction using imitation. The teacher plays a simple pattern on the drum. Each practitioner holds a drum as they are seated next to each pupil, modelling a response by copying the patterns that are introduced.

The teacher and practitioners model interaction using imitation. The teacher plays a simple pattern on the drum followed by a vocalisation. Each practitioner holds a drum as they are seated next to each pupil, modelling a response by copying the rhythmic and vocal patterns that are introduced.

In this clip, taken from an informational film entitled Sound Moves by the RNIB (1998), the practitioners model a call and response interaction through patterns of vocalisation. (The children in this clips are at different levels of ability, those with more complex needs applying more specifically to Level 1 of the framework here.)

Let's All Listen Information

Song 19

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


I1C activity to promote interaction through sound occurs in a range of contexts

Notwithstanding the variety of contexts, at most only reflex responses and ‘accidental’ interactions occur.

Strategies

For young people in the very early stages of development, it may well be most appropriate for proto-interactive work to be undertaken on a one-to-one basis, with the child or young person and practitioner in close proximity, with the minimum of external distractions. However, attempts to ‘kick-start’ interaction should rule nothing out, and different contexts – acoustic and social – should be tried systematically.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Interaction through sound is attempted in at least one context
  3. Interaction through sound is attempted in at least two contexts
  4. Interaction through sound is attempted in at least three contexts
  5. Interaction through sound is attempted in at least four contexts
  6. Interaction through sound is attempted in at least five contexts
Gauging consistency
  1. There are rarely opportunities to interact through sound in different contexts, occurring around once a fortnight or less
  2. There are occasionally opportunities to interact through sound in different contexts, occurring around once a week
  3. There are regularly opportunities to interact through sound in different contexts, occurring around twice a week
  4. There are frequently opportunities to interact through sound in different contexts, occurring around three or four times a week
  5. There are consistently opportunities to interact through sound in different contexts, occurring every day
Resources
All Join In Information
Let's All Listen Information

Song 26

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


I1D some activities to promote interaction through sound are multisensory in nature

Notwithstanding the addition of multisensory elements, at most only reflex responses and ‘accidental’ interactions occur.

Strategies

In ‘real life’, interaction through sound often occurs as part of a broader pattern of multisensory contact. Hence, it may be helpful to reflect this multimodality in encounters designed to promote interaction. Vocal sounds may usefully be supplemented with movement, gesture, touch, facial expressions and scent, for example, and evidence for a child's responses may be sought through any physical change.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Attempts to interact through sound are enhanced through input in at least one way in another sensory domain
  3. Attempts to interact through sound are enhanced through input in at least two ways in other sensory domains
  4. Attempts to interact through sound are enhanced through input in at least three ways in other sensory domains
  5. Attempts to interact through sound are enhanced through input in at least four ways in other sensory domains
  6. Attempts to interact through sound are enhanced through input in at least five ways in other sensory domains
Gauging consistency
  1. There are rarely opportunities to interact through sound in multisensory contexts, occurring around once a fortnight or less
  2. There are occasionally opportunities to interact through sound in multisensory contexts, occurring around once a week
  3. There are regularly opportunities to interact through sound in multisensory contexts, occurring around twice a week
  4. There are frequently opportunities to interact through sound in multisensory contexts, occurring around three or four times a week
  5. There are consistently opportunities to interact through sound in multisensory contexts, occurring every day


Additional information