I.2 interacts with others using sound

General observation

Children and young people use sound to engage with another or others, either by making sound in response to sound(s) that are made or by making sounds in the expectation that these will stimulate a response. The sounds may be vocal or made through 'external' means (banging, tapping, scraping, etc.). Conscious imitation is not present. Initially, interactions may occur with particular individuals or in particular environments, though gradually they may generalise to other contexts. The interactions may involve other sensory stimulation or activity too - for example, using vision or touch.

Interpretation

Through sound (primarily), children and young people are developing notions of 'self' and 'other', and a sense of the agency that can exist between them.

I2A sounds made by another stimulate a response in sound

Children and young people make sounds in response to those made by another or others. The sounds may be vocal or made through 'external' means (banging, tapping, scraping, etc.). There is no suggestion of deliberate imitation at this stage.

Strategies

Practitioners should offer plenty of opportunities for interaction to occur - probably initially in a quiet environment, minimal distractions (though always sensitive to child or young person's preferences). Try a range of different sounds - vocal ones may be particularly effective to start with - bear in mind any particularly sensitive hearing ranges on the part of the child, or preferences for certain sounds they may be exhibited before. Be prepared to wait for a response! Be very sensitive to responses that are made, or efforts in that direction - always at the ready to interpret what a child or young person does in the context of early communication.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Makes a sound in response to at least one type of sound
  3. Makes a sound in response to at least two types of sound
  4. Makes a sound in response to at least three types of sound
  5. Makes a sound in response to at least four types of sound
  6. Makes a sound in response to at least five types of sound
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Mathew's repeated vocalisation, after he has heard the teacher's empathetic vocal response (I.1.A), indicates that he is creating sound in response to what he hears (I.2.A).

As the music therapist sings hello, Usman vocalises and smiles in response.

Aisha is thirteen. She loves music, particularly playing the drums and has a good sense of rhythm. She often appears to switch off in class only to show that she has absorbed the content of the lesson, for example, later singing a song. As far as is known, this was the first time that Aisha was presented with a keyboard in this context. On being presented with the keyboard she spontaneously began to play. Aisha pauses during her playing, but comes back to it by hearing and turning towards the sounds made by the teacher, demonstrating that she is responding to the sounds she hears. She produces pure sound for sound's sake, rather than responding in imitation.

The teacher uses a microphone to emulate the scratching sound Shafiq makes with his fingers on the tray. Shafiq smiles, moving his fingers to create sound in response. Refer to P.2.A to see how the teacher's use of the microphone has created more observable intention and an interaction in the sound that is created by Shafiq. (Also see I.2.B to see how the teacher moved this interaction to vocalization next.)

As the teacher sings 'hello' to Abigail, she plays the bell in response. Here she holds the bell without any assistance, in comparison to earlier sessions in which Abi can be seen playing a small shaker fixed to her wrist as she could not independently grip an instrument. Abi also creates sound independently within a multisensory activity (P.2.D).

As the teacher sings to Abi, she creates sound with a shaker that is tied to her wrist. She makes sound independently and in response to the singing of the teacher. Abi appreciates her movement creates sound. (See Abi creating sound within a multisensory activity under the element of P.2.D.)

After the practitioner plays the castanets, Walid responds to the sound, gently playing the instrument in return. The practitioner allows ample time for Walid to respond to her playing.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 37

Commusication Songs Information

38-45


I2B sounds are made to stimulate a response in sound by another

Children and young people make sounds in the expectation that they will stimulate sound production by another person. This expectation may be shown by a pause following the sound that is made, and a positive reaction to the response – and by repetition of this cycle.

Strategies

Initially, practitioners may work on the assumption that a child or young person is seeking a response to the sound he or she makes, even if this is not clear, since it is through many repetitions of the process that the 'cause' and 'effect' may become apparent to the child or young person concerned. Factors to consider include the immediacy and consistency with which a response is made.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Makes at least one type of sound in the expectation that it will elicit a response
  3. Makes at least two types of sound in the expectation that they will elicit responses
  4. Makes at least three types of sound in the expectation that they will elicit responses
  5. Makes at least four types of sound in the expectation that they will elicit responses
  6. Makes at least five types of sound in the expectation that they will elicit responses
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Shafiq vocalises, pausing for the teacher to respond and then continues with the interaction, vocalising a number of times, pausing for the teacher, and smiling as he receives a response as well. (Shafiq also creates sound in response to another, I.2.A. To see how the teacher's engagement with Shafiq has created more observable interactive intention here, go to P.2.A.)

After the teacher chants 'Ready, steady' followed by playing a fast pattern on the drum, Hannah laughs and at the second repetition of 'Ready Steady' hits the drum (at 00:19) so that the teacher will play again.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 28

Commusication Songs Information

38-45


I2C interactions occur increasingly independently of context

Children and young people interact through sound in different contexts (with different people, in different environments, etc.).

Strategies

Give children and young people the opportunity, and encourage them, to interact in different contexts - for example, in a range of acoustical environments, with different people, on different social occasions and at different times of the day.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Interacts in at least two different contexts
  3. Interacts in at least three different contexts
  4. Interacts in at least four different contexts
  5. Interacts in at least five different contexts
  6. Interacts in six different contexts or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Interaction in different contexts is rare (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Interaction in different contexts is occasional (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. Interaction in different contexts is regular (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. Interaction in different contexts is frequent (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. Interaction in different contexts is consistent (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)

I2D interaction through sound involves activity that engages the other senses too

Interaction through sound may involve the other senses too - for example, vision (through eye contact, gesture and the use of objects) or touch (for example, through tapping, stroking and co-active movement).

Strategies

Human interaction is typically multisensory, and practitioners should follow their communicative instincts when interacting with children and young people with complex needs - including (where possible) eye contact, touch, movement and the use of shared objects. There may be a shared rhythm across the sensory modalities (for example, tapping in time to the music. Facial expressions may be exaggerated. ...

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Interaction through sound involves the other senses in at least one way
  3. Interaction through sound involves the other senses in at least two ways
  4. Interaction through sound involves the other senses in at least three ways
  5. Interaction through sound involves the other senses in at least four ways
  6. Interaction through sound involves the other senses in at least five ways
Gauging consistency
  1. Interaction through sound that involves the other senses is rare (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Interaction through sound that involves the other senses is occasional (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. Interaction through sound that involves the other senses is regular (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. Interaction through sound that involves the other senses is frequent (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. Interaction through sound that involves the other senses is consistent (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)


Additional information