I.3 interacts through imitating others' sounds or through recognising self being imitated

General observation

Children and young people copy what they hear at the most basic level - individual sounds or simple patterns in sound - and recognise their own sounds or simple patterns being copied by another.

Interpretation

Children and young people can use repetition and regularity in the context of interaction with another, and appreciate reciprocity - that imitation is a two-way street.

I3A shows awareness of own sounds being imitated

Children and young people show awareness of their own sounds (vocal or 'external') being imitated. They may give a pleasurable response, for example, when someone copies a sound they make, or intentionally make another sound to be imitated (see I.3.A).

Strategies

Practitioners may copy some or all of the sounds a child or young person makes and be empathetic to any reaction they may make. Imitation may be multisensory in nature.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Is aware of at least one type of sound being imitated
  3. Is aware of at least two types of sound being imitated
  4. Is aware of at least three types of sound being imitated
  5. Is aware of at least four types of sound being imitated
  6. Is aware of five types of sound or more being imitated
Gauging consistency
  1. Awareness is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Awareness is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Awareness is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Awareness is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Awareness is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
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A is eleven years old. She is using PECS to develop her communication skills. She doesn't use speech but is working on giving eye contact when an adult is talking to her. She loves being imitated and is very motivated by music and is also working on developing her play skills. A creates a simple pattern, vocalising on the syllable 'ba', within her normal repertoire of sounds, which her music therapist imitates with her voice and supports on the piano. A shows an awareness of her sound being imitated as she continues to take part in the interaction. She was engaged in this vocalisation over a thirty minute period, showing a particularly high level of engagement for her.

Shivan plays the piano during pauses that the teacher leaves in between phrases. Shivan's response to play in the spaces left for him and his continuation in the interaction indicates that he is aware of the sounds he makes on the piano being imitated.

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 3, 13

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

38-45


I3B imitates the sounds made by another

Children and young people copy sounds made by another or others - vocally or externally. The imitation may vary in how faithfully it follows the original. The intentionality driving the imitation may be shown through the child or young person's capacity to vary the type of sound that is produced.

Strategies

Practitioners may model imitation in sound. Children and young people may be motivated to copy sounds that are produced if those sounds are ones that they are known to enjoy making.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Copies at least one type or manifestation of sound with at least moderate accuracy
  3. Copies at least two types or manifestations of sound with at least moderate accuracy
  4. Copies at least three types or manifestations of sound with at least moderate accuracy
  5. Copies at least four types or manifestations of sound accurately
  6. Copies at least five types or manifestations of sound accurately
Gauging consistency
  1. Imitation in interactions is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Imitation in interactions is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Imitation in interactions is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Imitation in interactions is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Imitation in interactions is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
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The music therapist has been singing to Usman throughout this session. Here, Usman's vocalisations gradually demonstrate an imitation of the vocalisations made by the music therapist. The imitation here is not directed towards a definitive pattern as in I.3.D, but in sound.

A is eleven years old. She is using PECS to develop her communication skills. She doesn't use speech but is working on giving eye contact when an adult is talking to her. She loves being imitated, is very motivated by music and is also working on developing her play skills. Here, A interacts with her music therapist, vocalising. She shows an awareness of her sound being imitated (I.3.A) by her continuing to create sounds in order to be imitated. However, here she also imitates the sounds she hears. A first vocalises on the syllable 'ba' but when the music therapist plays an A on the piano (00:10), A begins to sing in vowels and finds the pitch she hears.

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 3, 13

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

38-45


I3C recognises own patterns in sound being imitated

Children and young recognise that their own patterns in sound (vocal or 'external') are copied by another - recognition that may be expressed through further musical activity (eg, further imitation) or (for example) an emotional reaction.

Strategies

At times when is seems appropriate, practitioners should copy patterns in sound produced by the child or young person concerned and be responsive to any reaction he or she may make.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Responds to the imitation of at least one type of pattern in sound
  3. Responds to the imitation of at least two types of pattern in sound
  4. Responds to the imitation of at least three types of pattern in sound
  5. Responds to the imitation of at least four types of pattern in sound
  6. Responds to the imitation of at least five types of pattern in sound
Gauging consistency
  1. A response to imitation is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. A response to imitation is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. A response to imitation is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. A response to imitation is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. A response to imitation is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)

I3D imitates simple patterns in sound made by another (through repetition, regularity and/or regular change)

Children and young people imitate patterns in sound made by another or others. Patterns may incorporate repetition, regularity (for example, a steady beat) and/or regular change (for example, in relation to pitch, loudness, timbre or the beat). The imitation of different forms of patterning may be combined (for example, change in pitch to a regular beat). The sounds may be vocal or 'external'.

Strategies

Practitioners should provide patterns in sound the child or young person finds enjoyable and may wish to imitate (and is within their physical capacity to do so). Practitioners should be empathetic to the beginnings of any imitation on the part of the child or young person. Imitation may be modelled (see I.3.D).

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Imitates at least one form of patterning in sound
  3. Imitates at least two forms of patterning in sound
  4. Imitates at least three forms of patterning in sound
  5. Imitates at least four forms of patterning in sound
  6. Imitates five forms of patterning in sound or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Imitation is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Imitation is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Imitation is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Imitation is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Imitation is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Shivan vocalises short motifs and taps the drum. When the practitioner sings his name Shivan imitates her, singing the pattern of a descending major third that he has just heard. This interaction also contains elements of P.4.A as Shivan vocalises groups of musical sounds.

Shivan imitates the vocal pattern 'mi mi mi mi mi' sung by the practitioner.

Theo and the practitioner engage in a dialogue, vocalising on the syllable "buh". The practitioner initiates the word "bobbly" which Theo imitates, laughing and enjoying the interaction. (See Theo using sound to symbolise things I.3.D and using musical motifs to symbolise things P.4.D.)

This is a group of children from Key Stage 3, who meet together once a week to sing. At this point the class had not been meeting very long but were enthusiastic. They do a short warm-up followed by songs to sing and sign. The warm up tends to be different every week. Here the pupils follow the lead of the teacher, some able to imitate different patterns of vocal sounds.

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 8, 9

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

23-36



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