I.4 engages in dialogues using distinctive groups of musical sounds ('motifs')

General observation

Children and young people engage in musical dialogues using coherent clusters of sounds - imitating clusters as a whole, or linking different clusters coherently - or recognising and responding to these relationships in what others produce.

Interpretation

Children and young people can use clusters of sounds and the relationships between them in the context of improvised musical interactions.

I4A produces musical motifs in the expectation that they will stimulate a coherent response

Children and young people produce motifs in the context of interaction, and wait for a response, reacting when one is given.

Strategies

Practitioners can model pattern of interaction and encourage children and young people to emulate what they do.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Produces at least one form of motif in the expectation of stimulating a coherent response
  3. Produces at least two forms of motif in the expectation of stimulating a coherent response
  4. Produces at least three forms of motif in the expectation of stimulating a coherent response
  5. Produces at least four forms of motif in the expectation of stimulating a coherent response
  6. Produces five forms of motif or more in the expectation of stimulating a coherent response
Gauging consistency
  1. Production of motifs (in appropriate contexts) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Production of motifs (in appropriate contexts) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Production of motifs (in appropriate contexts) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Production of motifs (in appropriate contexts) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Production of motifs (in appropriate contexts) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Romy plays a short motif, each time in a different key, pausing and waiting for her teacher to respond.

Romy plays simple motifs on the piano, pausing and waiting for her teacher to respond in imitation.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 40

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


I4B imitates distinctive groups of musical sounds - 'motifs' - made by others (as in 'call and response')

Children and young people engage in musical dialogues by imitating the distinctive clusters of notes (which may be produced vocally or 'externally' and in any style) produced by others.

Strategies

Practitioners may model interactive imitation in sound using clusters of notes.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Imitates at least one form of sound cluster in the context of interaction with at least moderate accuracy
  3. Imitates at least two forms of sound cluster in the context of interaction with at least moderate accuracy
  4. Imitates at least three forms of sound cluster in the context of interaction with at least moderate accuracy
  5. Imitates at least four forms of sound cluster in the context of interaction accurately
  6. Imitates five forms of sound cluster or more in the context of interaction accurately
Gauging consistency
  1. Imitation of clusters in interactions is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Imitation of clusters in interactions is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Imitation of clusters in interactions is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Imitation of clusters in interactions is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Imitation of clusters in interactions is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

The teacher introduces a motif on the piano, which Romy imitates in return.

This is a mixed ability class group, ages sixteen to eighteen, in their regularly weekly music lesson. They have been playing drums throughout the term in different ways and are learning about Africa in world studies. The class has been playing simple rhythmic patterns which they have been practising over a few weeks. Here Laura and Nancy are drumming a simple rhythm and an underpinning regular beat. An interaction between the two can be seen here as Laura (seated to the right) watches and listens to Nancy, using imitation in playing and maintaining the pattern.

The teacher plays an ascending chromatic scale on the piano. Freddie responds, imitating the teacher by singing an ascending and descending chromatic scale using the same notes.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 40

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


I4C responds to others by using different musical motifs coherently (as in 'question and answer')

For example, children and young people supply musical 'answers' to musical 'questions'. A practitioner may sing a rising phrase 'What did you do at the weekend?' over the harmonies C and G, for instance, and the child may reply with a complementary descending phrase (over the harmonies G and C). 'I went shopping'.

Strategies

Practitioners may model such interactions and encourage children and young people to emulate that patterns of interaction that are made.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Responds to others coherently in at least one way, using a different sound cluster from that presented
  3. Responds to others coherently in at least two ways, using different sound clusters from those presented
  4. Responds to others coherently in at least three ways, using different sound clusters from those presented
  5. Responds to others coherently in at least four ways, using different sound clusters from those presented
  6. Responds to others coherently in five ways or more, using different sound clusters from those presented
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses using different sound clusters (where these would be appropriate) are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses using different sound clusters (where these would be appropriate) are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses using different sound clusters (where these would be appropriate) are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses using different sound clusters (where these would be appropriate) are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses using different sound clusters (where these would be appropriate) are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Shivan completes the musical motifs being sung to him by the practitioner. After leaving pauses after phrases such as 'I hear

Romy plays an Ab on each octave of the piano, ascending. When the teacher begins playing an arpeggio in the bass, Romy responds coherently by playing a motif she is familiar with ("Habanera" from Bizet's Carmen) in the right hand. She uses a musical motif that corresponds with what the teacher introduced.

Shivan plays an ascending scale after which the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe', in the same key. Shivan responds by playing a C major scale again, transitioning between these two motifs smoothly. Shivan can also be seen to juxtapose musical motifs vocally in sessions he had years earlier. Shivan's ability to combine two motifs coherently also applies to P.4.B.

The teacher plays the first section of the motif of the 'Entertainer' on the piano. Romy completes the phrase, continuing the melody. She is able to concentrate and hear the motif the teacher plays, even though she is playing a different motif at the same time. Her ability to process new material that is presented to her while she plays shows a keen sense of concentration and awareness. This interaction also represents turn taking and playing simultaneously (I.4.D)

Let's All Listen Information

Song 40

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


I4D interactions form coherent patterns of turn-taking, with the possibility of some simultaneity

Children and young interact with others through music taking turns, and possibility producing some material simultaneously and coherently (that 'fits' tonally and temporally). The modes of production (vocal or instrumental, for example) and the styles may vary.

Strategies

Practitioners model the 'give and take' of typical improvised interactions, as well as simple simultaneous playing or singing, and encourage children and young people to emulate what they do.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Interacts through taking turns and/or simultaneously using at least one form of material
  3. Interacts through taking turns and/or simultaneously using at least two forms of material
  4. Interacts through taking turns and/or simultaneously using at least three forms of material
  5. Interacts through taking turns and/or simultaneously using at least four forms of material
  6. Interacts through taking turns and/or simultaneously using five forms of material or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Interaction (in appropriate contexts) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Interaction (in appropriate contexts) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Interaction (in appropriate contexts) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Interaction (in appropriate contexts) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Interaction (in appropriate contexts) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Shivan sings musical motifs from the song 'Slowly' from All Join In, simultaneously with his teacher. While clearly illustrating the element of I.4.D this interaction also involves a number of other elements. For example, Shivan sings the motif 'slowly, slowly, going slowly', repeating it a number of times (P.4.B) and shows a recognition of the coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs (R.4.C) as well as juxtaposing motifs as he sings, continuing phrases that are introduced.

Romy and her teacher play the keyboard in a clear interaction of turn-taking, emphasised by Romy's waiting for her teacher's response and taking his hand and placing it on the keyboard when it is his turn to play.

After the teacher plays the theme of Mozart's Sonata in A Major, K.331, Romy picks up the phrase, playing simultaneously with her teacher.

Shivan and his teacher interact, taking turns. Shivan plays a note on the piano and waits for his teacher to respond with phrases from the song 'We Will Rock You', before answering again and forming a pattern of turn-taking.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 40

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 6

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12



Additional information