P.2 makes or controls sound intentionally

General observation

Children and young people make or control sounds deliberately. They may do so through an increasing variety of means – by vocalising or through direct contact with a musical instrument or other soundmaker, or by using an interface such as a switch or ultrasonic beam. They may come to show increasing control over what they do, and may intentionally make a variety of sounds. They may increasingly express their feelings through the sounds they make. They may produce sounds intentionally in a range of contexts, or as part of multisensory activity, or both. They may start to use sounds in conscious association with particular people, places and/or activities.

Interpretation

Children and young people have a sense of agency, with the necessary cognitive and motor capacities to produce or control sounds intentionally, potentially with an affective component.

P2A makes sounds intentionally, potentially through an increasing variety of means and with greater range and control

Children and young people deliberately make sounds. Their intentionality may be shown through noticeable anticipation, a consistent response (see R.2.A) or the efforts they make to 'do the same thing again'. They make sounds in one way or more than one, and the nature of the sounds they make may vary.

Strategies

As at Level 1, continue to stimulate children with a wide range of auditory experiences. As young people start to react to particular sounds, systematic observation is essential, to inform the planning of future auditory experiences. Seek consistency in reaction – do they 'habituate' to particular sounds? How long does it take? How regularly do they react? Seek replication but also extension to types of sound that differ slightly to that produce a response. For example, if a child reacts to a gong, will a cymbal do just as well? What about other resonant metallic sounds?

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Intentionally makes at least one type of sound
  3. Intentionally makes at least two different sounds
  4. Intentionally makes at least three different sounds
  5. Intentionally makes at least four different sounds
  6. Intentionally makes five different sounds or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Given the appropriate opportunities, intentional sound-making is rare (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Given the appropriate opportunities, intentional sound-making is occasional (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. Given the appropriate opportunities, intentional sound-making is regular (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. Given the appropriate opportunities, intentional sound-making is frequent (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. Given the appropriate opportunities, intentional sound-making is consistent (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Mathew moves his hand over a Midi-Block, creating the sound of a piano as he does so. The activity is taking place in a music room, different from the usual classroom context, relating the experience also to element P.2.C.

Shafiq moves his fingers on the table, creating a scratching sound as he does so. (To see how the teacher takes this movement and sound and makes it interactive please go to I.2.A.)

Brandon is 5 years old. He has severe visual impairment but may have some light perception and awareness of shadows. He moves his mouth and tongue to vocalise softly, and his teachers are working with him to increase the volume of his vocalisations. Here Brandon works with Soundbeam. The Soundbeam is directed towards Brandon's right hand, and when his gestures become larger, a greater range of sounds are created. The Soundbeam has been used with Brandon to increase his awareness of intentionally making sound. This clip shows a progression of more observable purposeful movement in comparison to earlier in the session, which can be seen in P.1.A.

S plays the keyboard intentionally. He makes sounds in different ways and with varying dynamics, using his left hand to strike the keys and his fingers to play with a gentler touch.

L is 11 years old. He has no sight but uses speech and often repeats phrases. He sings and is able to pick up a tune and rhythm quickly. He sometimes attempts to pick out a tune on the keyboard while listening to it. He absorbs things and may show his understanding of something in time. L has a preference for classical music and loves opera and goes to bed while listening to an opera CD. Here, L plays the switch intentionally, using his left hand, creating the sounds of bells and a drum.

Walid plays the drum, gently scratching the instrument with his fingers. The drum is placed in a angle so that he is able to better access the instrument to create sound.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 1

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


P2B expresses feelings through sound

Sounds are made vocally or through 'external' means that appear to express feelings - and that may be confirmed through other behaviours. For example, excitement may be evident through shrieking and flapping; sadness through wailing and crying; frustration through shouting and banging; etc.

Strategies

Practitioners may set up situations that they know will arouse (positive) emotions in a child, and encourage him/her to express his/her feelings through sound; they may imitate the expressive sounds, movements and postures made by children and young people.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Expresses at least one type of feeling through sound
  3. Expresses at least two types of feeling through sound
  4. Expresses at least three types of feeling through sound
  5. Expresses at least four types of feeling through sound
  6. Expresses five types of feeling or more through sound
Gauging consistency
  1. At appropriate junctures, feelings are rarely expressed through sound (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. At appropriate junctures, feelings are occasionally expressed through sound (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. At appropriate junctures, feelings are regularly expressed through sound (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. At appropriate junctures, feelings are frequently expressed through sound (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. At appropriate junctures, feelings are consistently expressed through sound (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Usman's vocalisations appear to express the happiness that can also be seen in his expression as his music therapist vocalizes and plays the guitar in response.

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 23, 43

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


P2C produces sounds intentionally in a range of contexts

Children and young people deliberately make sounds in different contexts (with different people, in different environments, etc.).

Strategies

Give children and young people the opportunity, and encourage them, to make sounds in different contexts - for example, in a range of acoustical environments, with different people, on different social occasions and at different times of the day.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Deliberately makes sounds in at least two different contexts
  3. Deliberately makes sounds in at least three different contexts
  4. Deliberately makes sounds in at least four different contexts
  5. Deliberately makes sounds in at least five different contexts
  6. Deliberately makes sounds in six different contexts or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Intentional sound-making in different contexts is rare (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Intentional sound-making in different contexts is occasional (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. Intentional sound-making in different contexts is regular (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. Intentional sound-making in different contexts is frequent (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. Intentional sound-making in different contexts is consistent (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

S plays the chimes in the outdoor 'sound garden' of his school. This is a different environment from his experiences of playing the keyboard and switches during his weekly soundbeam session. (See P.2.B to view S playing the keyboard.)

Jamie plays the xylophone within the context of his classroom at a special needs school and again produces sound in the context of a gamelan ensemble at London's South Bank with children from a mainstream school.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 2

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


P2D produces sounds as part of multisensory activity

Children and young people intentionally produce sounds in association with other sensory stimulation - for example, banging the cymbal and enjoying its glistening, vibrating, reflective surface at the same time as relishing its metallic, resonant ring; or controlling sounds light using an ultrasonic beam.

Strategies

Ensure some of the available sound makers have pleasing multisensory qualities - potentially including touch (warm/cool, rough/smooth, etc.), vibration, colour and light. practitioners will need to be especially observant to gauge which aspect or aspects of multisensory production children and young people are attracted to.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Intentionally produces at least one type of sound as part of multisensory production
  3. Intentionally produces at least two types of sound as part of multisensory production
  4. Intentionally produces at least three types of sound as part of multisensory production
  5. Intentionally produces at least four types of sound as part of multisensory production
  6. Intentionally produces at least five types of sound as part of multisensory production
Gauging consistency
  1. Intentional sound-making in as part of multisensory work is rare (occurring on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Intentional sound-making in as part of multisensory work is occasional (occurring on around one in four occasions)
  3. Intentional sound-making in as part of multisensory work is regular (occurring on around one in two occasions)
  4. Intentional sound-making in as part of multisensory work is frequent (occurring on around three in four occasions)
  5. Intentional sound-making in as part of multisensory work is consistent (occurring on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Abi creates sound as part of a multi-sensory activity with the use of Optimusic. She holds a paddle independently, breaking the coloured beam of light, which is programmed to activate sound through a sensor. Abi's hand grasp and arm movement to create sound independently is highly significant for her. She is being supported by the adults singing, "what sound have you got?", accompanied by the keyboard.

In a different environment from the classroom - this one is dark and quiet, with peripheral disturbance excluded as far as possible - there is a moving colourful projection onto a fine white material that hangs from the ceiling. Soundbeam is set up to the side to catch the movement of the material. La Shay has the opportunity to interact with the visual and tactile element of the material here, and if she does so will then get a musical response. She moves the material, creating sound.

This is a Year 3/4 class in a whole group activity, designed to create sound by means of tactile and visual elements (holding and shaking brightly coloured material to move the sound making object). Iqra helps to shake the material, causing the bells to jingle. Ibraheem, seated to the right, tracks the teacher with his eyes. He is being exposed to the sound of the bells as well as the feel of the draft created by the shaking of the material (R.2.D).

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 11, 12, 25

Commusication Songs Information

15-22



Additional information