P.4 (re)creates distinctive groups of musical sounds ('motifs') and links them coherently

General observation

Children and young people produce clusters of sounds that form discrete 'wholes' - distinct musical shapes formed from separate musical components, that make up bigger units that are in some way self-sufficient. The motifs may be improvised by the child on the spur of the moment, or be more or less deliberate imitations of previous material (from any source). A further stage is to link these coherently - either through repetition or variation (or various types), or through sharing a common component (so, for example, an opening phrase may ascend to a particular pitch, and the answering phrase may descend from it). Clusters may be linked to non-musical objects, people or events symbolically.

Interpretation

The child or young person can produce 'Gestalts' in sound, potentially implying boundaries with other sounds or groups of sounds that do not conform. He or she can link Gestalts coherently, potentially through a variety of means, that either involve both groups as a whole or portions of them. Memory is clearly implicated too and, potentially, rule-bound creativity.

P4A (re)creates distinctive groups of musical sounds ('motifs')

Children and young people intentionally produce clusters of sounds that form distinct 'wholes'. The medium may vary - from unpitched percussion to the voice (for example). The manner in which internal cohesion is ensured may vary too - typically through constancy, continuity, repetition, regularity or regular variation in one dimension of sound or more.

Strategies

Encourage or model the formation of sound clusters using types of sound and styles of music that the child or young person is known to find attractive (vocally or using a sound maker). Interaction may well be involved (see I.4).

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Intentionally produces at least one type of coherent sound cluster
  3. Intentionally produces at least two types of coherent sound clusters
  4. Intentionally produces at least three types of coherent sound clusters
  5. Intentionally produces at least four types of coherent sound clusters
  6. Intentionally produces fives types of coherent sound clusters or more
Gauging consistency
  1. The production of coherent sound clusters (when stimulated, for example, through interaction) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. The production of coherent sound clusters (when stimulated, for example, through interaction) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. The production of coherent sound clusters (when stimulated, for example, through interaction) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. The production of coherent sound clusters (when stimulated, for example, through interaction) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. The production of coherent sound clusters (when stimulated, for example, through interaction) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
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Rebecca plays a rhythmic motif while strumming the guitar. She repeats this a number of times.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 10

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


P4B links musical motifs by repeating or varying them

Children and young people link clusters of sounds coherently by repeating them or varying them. Instruments or the voice may be used in any musical style.

Strategies

Encourage or model coherent links between musical clusters using a range of instruments and the voice in a variety of styles.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Intentionally links at least one cluster of sounds to another, through repetition or variation
  3. Intentionally links at least two clusters of sounds to others, through repetition or variation
  4. Intentionally links at least three clusters of sounds to others, through repetition or variation
  5. Intentionally links at least four clusters of sounds to others, through repetition or variation
  6. Intentionally links at five clusters of sounds or more to others, through repetition or variation
Gauging consistency
  1. Sound clusters are produced that are linked coherently (in contexts where one may be expected) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Sound clusters are produced that are linked coherently (in contexts where one may be expected) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Sound clusters are produced that are linked coherently (in contexts where one may be expected) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Sound clusters are produced that are linked coherently (in contexts where one may be expected) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Sound clusters are produced that are linked coherently (in contexts where one may be expected) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
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Romy takes a phrase (C, D, E, F, G, G, G,F, E, D, C) that she often plays and varies the ending, placing it in minor (C, D, E, F, G, G followed by A, G, F, E, D).

Freddie plays a five note motif (five finger exercise) on the piano. He repeats the motif, ascending the keyboard chromatically, playing and singing in a number of keys. Freddie has absolute pitch, allowing him to play the notes 'silently' while singing the pitches accurately in the correct sequence, as he hears them.

David is six years old with autism. He is working on taking part in group music classes, singing and vocalising. He is very quickly learning to sing at pitch and is demonstrating an increasing enjoyment of music sessions. Here, David is playing a rhythmic motif, as the teacher chants a phrase 'jelly on a plate'. David repeats the motif on the tambourine and varies it slightly.

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Song 11

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Chapter 12


P4C juxtaposes different musical motifs coherently

Children and young people improvise coherent juxtapositions of motifs - for example in 'question' and 'answer' sessions (see R.4.C and I.4.B) - using instruments of different types or the voice.

Strategies

Practitioners may encourage or model coherent juxtapositions of motifs, in a range of styles, and vocally or instrumentally, for children and young people to hear and, potentially, emulate.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Motifs are coherently juxtaposed in at least one way
  3. Motifs are coherently juxtaposed in at least two ways
  4. Motifs are coherently juxtaposed in at least three ways
  5. Motifs are coherently juxtaposed in at least four ways
  6. Motifs are coherently juxtaposed in five ways or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Coherent juxtaposition of motifs (in contexts where this may be expected) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Coherent juxtaposition of motifs (in contexts where this may be expected) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Coherent juxtaposition of motifs (in contexts where this may be expected) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Coherent juxtaposition of motifs (in contexts where this may be expected) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Coherent juxtaposition of motifs (in contexts where this may be expected) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
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Romy repeats the motif of a theme from Aaron Copland's 'Rodeo', followed by a chromatic scale, descending the length of the keyboard. The two motifs she plays in succession transition smoothly from one to another.

Amy sings a 'potpourri' song, in which she links together phrases and motifs from different songs and nursery rhymes together, creating a coherent whole.

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Song 14

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Chapter 12


P4D uses musical motifs to symbolise other things (for example in 'sound stories')

Given the opportunity, children and young people use musical motifs to symbolise other things. They may use different motifs to represent characters, events, places or actions in a story, for example.

Strategies

Practitioners can promote symbolic association with motifs in sound stories, plays and other narrative contexts. The connection with motifs and other day-to-day matters may also be emphasised - for example, in relation to mobile ring tones, TV adverts, etc.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Proactively uses at least one musical motif symbolically
  3. Proactively uses at least two musical motifs symbolically
  4. Proactively uses at least three musical motifs symbolically
  5. Proactively uses at least four musical motifs symbolically
  6. Proactively uses five musical motifs or more symbolically
Gauging consistency
  1. Proactive use of musical motifs as symbols (in appropriate contexts) is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Proactive use of musical motifs as symbols (in appropriate contexts) is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Proactive use of musical motifs as symbols (in appropriate contexts) is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Proactive use of musical motifs as symbols (in appropriate contexts) is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Proactive use of musical motifs as symbols (in appropriate contexts) is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
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Theo hums the tune of "Twinkle, twinkle little star" to tell his mother that he is going to nibble his biscuit into the shape of a star, using the musical motif to symbolise and communicate the shape. Throughout the session Theo used many sounds and musical motifs to symbolise things when communicating. (See P.4.C to see Theo using sound to symbolise things.)

Shivan has come to use the motif of a scale to symbolise 'more' music. When the teacher pauses between playing phrases of the 'Hornpipe', Shivan plays a scale, requesting more. He smiles as the teacher responds to his request and continues to play.

Music is being used here along with objects of reference. As the student holds a cup in his hand he vocalises a tune, as the teacher and her assistants sing 'Have a drink, have a drink

The percussionist reinforces a verbal/sung dialogue with Tyrone through the use of rhythm. She begins the conversation by singing and drumming 'Hello Tyrone'. Tyrone responds each time with a rhythmic motif, which symbolises the verbal 'hello' response.

Oliver taps a rhythm to substitute for speech. Here he taps a rhythm for the phrase, 'Thank you very much indeed'.

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Song 24

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Chapter 6

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12



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