R.3 responds to simple patterns in sound (made through repetition or regularity)

General observation

Children and young people detect pattern in sound, potentially of various types. For example, they may show engagement with a series of sounds the same, that may be be produced with a regular beat (at a range of tempi), or regular change in sound (pitch getting higher or lower, or increase or decrease in loudness, for example). Sounds may be consistently linked to other things and come to represent them symbolically. For example, a windchime may come to represent the classroom, while a bell may mean 'music session'.

Interpretation

Perceptually, the child or young person concerned has moved beneath the perceptual 'surface' to start to recognise structure - through relationships between stimuli, their repetition and regularity. These relationships may occur in any domain - particularly perceived time and pitch, though regular change in loudness is also relatively easy to detect. Such relationships may extend, in effect, cross-modally, enabling sounds to function symbolically (through association).

R3A recognises and responds to the repetition of sounds

Children and young people respond to patterns of sounds that are made through repetition, for example, vocal sounds, sounds made through instruments. The sounds may well (although need not) form a regular beat (see R.3.B). Responses may include the production of sounds through repetition or imitation (see P.3 and I.3).

Strategies

In seeking to elicit responses to patterns in sound, it may be most effective to use sounds for which the child or young person has previously shown a preference. Once the child or young person responds to repetition in relation to sounds of a particular quality, practitioners may try extending this to sounds of other qualities. Bear in mind that listeners may 'habituate' to the same stimulus after a time.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Responds to repetition in relation to at least one type of sound
  3. Responds to repetition in relation to at least two types of sound
  4. Responds to repetition in relation to at least three types of sound
  5. Responds to repetition in relation to at least four types of sound
  6. Responds to repetition in relation to five types of sound or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses to repetition are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses to repetition are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses to repetition are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses to repetition are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses to repetition are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Let's All Listen Information

Song 27

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

23-36


R3B recognises and responds to a regular beat

Children and young people respond to a regular beat. Responses may take the form of a musical response (see I.3) or extra-musical responses. The beat may be at different speeds (or 'tempi'), and use different types of sound.

Strategies

Practitioners may consider using sounds initially to which the child or young person concerned is known to be attracted. Different tempi can be tried in order to gain a response. Different types of sound (at different dynamic levels) can follow.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Responds to at least one manifestation of a regular beat.
  3. Responds to at least two manifestations of a regular beat (which may differ with regard to tempo, timbre, etc.)
  4. Responds to at least three manifestations of a regular beat (which may differ with regard to tempo, timbre, etc.)
  5. Responds to at least four manifestations of a regular beat (which may differ with regard to tempo, timbre, etc.)
  6. Responds to five or more manifestations of a regular beat (which may differ with regard to tempo, timbre, etc.)
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Bulbul shows a response to the repetition of the teacher's drumming by vocalising between the deliberate pauses she makes.

Aisya anticipates the pattern of the teacher repeating the drum, putting her hands to her ears.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 44

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

23-36


R3C recognises and responds to simple patterns formed through regular change

Regular change may occur in any domain - for example, pitch (going up and down smoothly or with distinct pitches), loudness (getting louder or quieter), timbre (regular change in tone colour - eg, from a didgeridoo), beat (getting faster or slower). Responses may occur to any of these in isolation or in combination.

Strategies

Give children and young people the opportunity to hear many forms of regular change in musical sounds, and be attentive to their responses. Once recognition of the change is secure, try altering aspects to test and extend cognitive limits.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises and responds to at least one manifestation of regular change in sound
  3. Recognises and responds to at least two manifestations of regular change in sound
  4. Recognises and responds to at least three manifestations of regular change in sound
  5. Recognises and responds to at least four manifestations of regular change in sound
  6. Recognises and responds to five manifestations of regular change in sound or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Shivan laughs in response to the increased tempo of the song 'Fare thee Well', being sung and played for him.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 7

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

23-36


R3D responds to musical sounds used to symbolise other things

Recognises and responds to the fact that sounds may be used to symbolise other things - for example, windchimes meaning 'class' and a bell meaning 'music'.

Strategies

Potential sound-symbols may be associated consistently with the object, person, event or place that they are intended to represent until the link is established.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises and responds to at least one sound symbol
  3. Recognises and responds to at least two sound symbols
  4. Recognises and responds to at least three sound symbols
  5. Recognises and responds to at least four sound symbols
  6. Recognises and responds to at least five sound symbols or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

While in the multisensory room Grace engages in representational play with a practitioner. She pretends to go to sleep and wake up in the morning, responding to the sounds of 'beep, beep, beep, beep', which represent the sound of an alarm.

Objects of reference are used to symbolise a place and person. In the first portion of the clip bells are used to indicate a classroom. Next, the sound of a bird tweet, which the teacher plays, symbolises the pupil, Natasha. When Natasha hears the song and sound of the bird tweet, she reaches out for it, responding and understanding that it is her sound.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 21

MfCaYPwCN Information

Chapter 4

Commusication Songs Information

12-14, 23-37, 47, 48



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