R.2 shows an emerging awareness of sound

General observation

Children and young people react to sound. They may respond to an increasing variety of sounds to which they are exposed, and react in distinct ways to differing qualities of sound (for example, giggling at rapid runs of notes high up on the keyboard or showing wide-eyed amazement at the gong). They may come to recognise that what we think of as essentially the same sound can appear to be different on different occasions – for instance, varying according to the environment in which it is heard (for example, a person’s voice will sound different in a small room, a resonant hall, or outside in the playground). Children and young people may become aware of the contexts in which certain sounds usually occur, and come to associate particular sounds with familiar people, places or activities.

Interpretation

Sound is processed as a distinct sensory experience, within which an increasing range and diversity of auditory input may be perceived. ‘Perceptual invariance’ may develop in the domain of hearing. Sound may be integrated with other sensory input to form meaningful bundles of sensory information. Hence the concept of 'sound' may begin to emerge.

R2A shows awareness of sounds - potentially of an increasing variety

Children and young people respond to one type of sound or more, and some to an increasing variety of sounds.

Strategies

As at Level 1, continue to stimulate children with a wide range of auditory experiences. As young people start to react to particular sounds, systematic observation is essential, to inform the planning of future auditory experiences. Seek consistency in reaction – do they 'habituate' to particular sounds? How long does it take? How regularly do they react? Seek replication but also extension to types of sound that differ slightly to that produce a response. For example, if a child reacts to a gong, will a cymbal do just as well? What about other resonant metallic sounds?

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Shows awareness of at least one type of sound
  3. Shows awareness of at least two types of sound
  4. Shows awareness of at least three types of sound
  5. Shows awareness of at least four types of sound
  6. Shows awareness of at least five types of sound
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
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R has a severe visual impairment as well as sensory neural hearing loss, but he may respond to some sounds. Here, he has placed the omnichord on his legs as the teacher plays for him. He shows an awareness of the sound, focusing on the vibration that he is feeling on his legs and as he touches the strings. His awareness is further demonstrated as he takes the teacher's hand and brings it back to the instrument, after the teacher has stopped playing.

M is visually impaired and has profound sensory hearing loss. She is non-verbal and uses limited non-symbolic communication. She enjoys exploring objects. Here, as the teacher plays the djembe M brings the bottom of the instrument close to her head, exploring and reacting to the tactile qualities of the instrument and of the vibration in sound that she experiences.

As the teacher sings to E, she shows a response to the sound through the movement of her mouth and tongue.

Let's All Listen Information

Song 6

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


R2B makes differentiated responses to qualities of sounds that differ (eg loud/quiet) and/or change (eg get louder)

Through movement, change in posture, vocalisation or other forms of self-expression, children and young people show different responses to sounds that are loud or quiet, high or low, coarse or mellow in timbre, emanating from different directions etc., and/or to change in any of these dimensions.

Strategies

Practitioners provide contrasting sounds for children and young people to experience, including some in carefully controlled circumstances, and observe any responses, tailoring what they do next to signs of interest, likes or dislikes. Practitioners themselves react differently to different sounds, through a range of movements, gestures and emotional responses, positively or negatively valenced to a greater or lesser degree. These reactions may be communicated through co-movement.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Reacts differentially to two contrasting qualities of sound or more, and/or to marked change in a sound
  3. Reacts differentially to three or more differing qualities of or change in sound
  4. Reacts differentially to four or more differing qualities of or change in sound
  5. Reacts differentially to five or more differing qualities of or change in sound
  6. Reacts differentially to six or more differing qualities of or change in sound
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
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Usman appears to differentiate between the sound of the two instruments presented to him. When the shaker and bells are offered to him by his music therapist, Usman reaches out for the shaker after hearing this instrument in comparison to the bells. The music therapist allows Usman ample time to listen to each instrument and respond with his preference.

Darryl has a variety of non-verbal communication strategies including facial expression, vocalisation and body language. During music he shows an interest in the keyboard and drum. Here, as the drum gets louder and the teaching assistant claps, Darryl becomes excited in reaction to the change in sound.

As the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe' on the piano, he builds on the texture and increases the dynamic. Shivan reacts to the changes in sound and gets excited, sitting up, rocking and smiling. Shivan repeatedly shows a similar response to these types of changes in sound, which can be seen again in an earlier session.

As the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe' on the piano, he builds on the texture and increases dynamic. Shivan reacts to the changes in sound and gets excited, sitting up, rocking and smiling.

Let's All Listen Information

Songs 17, 42

Commusication Songs Information

1-11


R2C responds to musical sounds increasingly independently of context

Reacts in a similar way to similar musical sounds that are heard in different contexts.

Strategies

Give children and young people the opportunity to hear similar sounds and music in different contexts - for example, in a range of acoustical environments, with different people, different social occasions and at different times of the day.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Reacts in a similar way to music and musical sounds in at least two different contexts
  3. Reacts in a similar way to music and musical sounds in at least three different contexts
  4. Reacts in a similar way to music and musical sounds in at least four different contexts
  5. Reacts in a similar way to music and musical sounds in at least five different contexts
  6. Reacts in a similar way to music and musical sounds in six different contexts or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Similar responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Similar responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Similar responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Similar responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Similar responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)

R2D responds to musical sounds linked to other sensory input

Responds to musical sounds when experienced in combination with other sensory input; and through their association with particular people, places and/or activities

Strategies

Ensure some music and musical sounds are experienced systematically with other sensory stimulation such as touch, movement, light, or even scent. This may occur naturally in the case of musical instruments, for example, or may be achieved through the technology of multisensory rooms, for instance, or in discos. Practitioners may consistently connect particular musical sounds with significant people, locations and activities.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Responds to at least one multisensory experience involving music or musical sounds
  3. Responds to at least two multisensory experiences involving music or musical sounds
  4. Responds to at least three multisensory experiences involving music or musical sounds
  5. Responds to at least four multisensory experiences involving music or musical sounds
  6. Responds to at least five multisensory experiences involving music or musical sounds
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

For this student with a visual impairment, the practitioner combines song and light. As the practitioner sings to the pupil, 'Look at the light

This is a year 3/4 class, which always begins with the teacher going around the outside of the circle, behind the children playing an instrument, at different tempi, but always slow to start with, combining both auditory and visual stimuli. A different instrument is used each week, to test out the different response, quiet shaky, etc. This could be tried without the sound to separate out the visual from the auditory stimulus. Here Iqra and Fatima track in slightly different ways. Fatima hardly misses a moment, tracking with her eyes while Iqra, who often opts out by putting her head down or hiding her eyes, does raise her head and look in the right place from time to time. Both smile to support the suggestion that they are actively and independently engaged.

In the sensory suite Rudi lies on a soft mat next to a column of bubbles that change colour when a switch is pressed. Rudi taps his hand against the floor, indicating that he would like more. As his teacher helps him to press the switch, the bubbles light up and change colour and the music becomes louder. Rudi smiles in response.

When the teacher begins to move the drum, causing the beads to roll and rattle, Aisya moves her head closer to the instrument and its sound and gently hits the drum with her hands.

This is a Year 3/4 class, which always begins with the teacher going around the outside of the circle, behind the children, playing an instrument, at different tempi, but slow to start with. A different instrument is used each week, to test out the different response: quiet, shaky, etc. This could be tried without the sound to separate out the impacts of the visual from the auditory stimulus. Ibraheem tends to ignore what is going on, and this activity was used to gain his full attention. Ibraheem, seated in the centre, tracks the sound of a shaker, with his eyes and by turning his head around the circle, which is very unusual for him. As the activity becomes faster his response changes, he begins to smile and laugh, which has not been seen before in class. The additional sensory input of the sight of the teacher moving around the circle supports the response to sound.

The children in this clip react to sound that is also felt as they lie and sit upon the resonance boards on which the teacher and her assistants tap. (From the DVD Sound Moves by the RNIB, 1998.)

Let's All Listen Information

Song 5

Commusication Songs Information

15-22



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