R.4 recognises and responds to distinctive groups of musical sounds ('motifs') and the relationships between them (eg in 'call and response')

General observation

Children and young people recognise and respond to the short, coherent groups of musical sounds ('motifs') of which pieces are typically made up. This recognition may be shown through a response on their part, or through proactive or interactive engagement (see P.4 and I.4).

Interpretation

Perceptually and cognitively, the child or young person concerned recognises that music is constructed in distinct 'chunks' ('Gestalts'), which can be coherently combined in a number of ways to form larger structures.

R4A recognises and responds to distinctive groups of musical sounds - 'motifs'

Children and young people recognise and respond to short, distinctive clusters of musical sounds - these may be the beginnings of well-known pieces, mobile phone ringtones, TV jingles, etc. - or specially devised music for learning.

Strategies

Recognition of motifs may be supported through exposure (among other music) to a range of short, attractive groups of sound that the child or young person can potentially produce for themselves in due course (see P.4.A).

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises and responds to at least one musical motif
  3. Recognises and responds to at least two musical motifs
  4. Recognises and responds to at least three musical motifs
  5. Recognises and responds to at least four musical motifs
  6. Recognises and responds to five musical motifs or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Recognition and responses to motifs are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Recognition and responses to motifs are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Recognition and responses to motifs are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Recognition and responses to motifs are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Recognition and responses to motifs are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)

R4B recognises and responds to musical motifs being repeated or varied

Children and young people respond to chunks of music being repeated or varied (as in 'call and response' activities).

Strategies

Practitioners may consider showing how motifs can be related (through repetition or variation) through 'call and response' activities, making the relationships as clear as possible, with a range of different materials.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises and responds to at least one type of motif being repeated or subject to slight variation
  3. Recognises and responds to at least two types of motif being repeated or subject to slight variation
  4. Recognises and responds to at least three types of motif being repeated or subject to slight variation
  5. Recognises and responds to at least four types of motif being repeated or varied
  6. Recognises and responds to five types of motif being repeated or varied
Gauging consistency
  1. Recognition and responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Recognition and responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Recognition and responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Recognition and responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Recognition and responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Romy responds, smiling and vocalising, when she hears the repetition of the short piece written for her "Romy we're singing your song, now it's time to use your thumb". She also vocalises back the phrase after hearing it played on the piano (I.4.B)

Let's All Listen Information

Song 40

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


R4C recognises the coherent juxtaposition of different musical motifs

This descriptor refers to motifs that are different through related (cf. R.4.B, where one motif is a repetition of or variation on another). Evidence may well stem from the proactive and interactive domains, when, for example, children and young people supply musical 'answers' to musical 'questions'. So, for example, a practitioner may sing a rising phrase 'What did you do at the weekend?' over the harmonies C and G, and the child may reply with a complementary descending phrase (over the harmonies G and C). 'I went shopping'. A purely reactive response to such interchanges is, of course, possible too.

Strategies

Give children and young people the opportunity to hear pairs of motifs that complement one another - practitioners can model such connections for them - using and supported with language, as appropriate. Different styles of music, and different instruments/voices can be used to seek to generalise the concept of coherent connection.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises at least one form of coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs
  3. Recognises at least two forms of coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs
  4. Recognises at least three forms of coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs
  5. Recognises at least four forms of coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs
  6. Recognises five forms of coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Recognition is observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Recognition is observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Recognition is observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Recognition is observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Recognition is observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)
Resources
All Join In Information
Videos Information

Romy's father plays two motifs coherently at the piano, an ascending chromatic scale that transitions into a theme from Aaron Copland's 'Rodeo'. As Romy hears and recognises the juxtaposition of these motifs, she shakes her hands in excitement and laughs. Romy also plays theses motifs on the piano, combining them coherently (P.4.C).

Let's All Listen Information

Song 20

Focus 2 Information

Chapter 12


R4D responds to musical motifs being used to symbolise other things

Recognises and responds to the fact that musical motifs may be used to symbolise other things - for example, 'hello' and 'goodbye' songs. In assessing this descriptor, care should be taken that the child or young person concerned is recognising the music motif itself and not other aspects (for example, a particular instrument) or associated features - for example, words.

Strategies

Potential motifs may be associated consistently with the object, person, event or place that they are intended to represent until the link is established.

Evaluating engagement
  1. No evidence
  2. Recognises and responds to at least one motif being used symbolically
  3. Recognises and responds to at least two motifs being used symbolically
  4. Recognises and responds to at least three motifs being used symbolically
  5. Recognises and responds to at least four motifs being used symbolically
  6. Recognises and responds to five motifs being used symbolically or more
Gauging consistency
  1. Responses are observed rarely (on around one in eight occasions or fewer)
  2. Responses are observed occasionally (on around one in four occasions)
  3. Responses are observed regularly (on around one in two occasions)
  4. Responses are observed frequently (on around three in four occasions)
  5. Responses are observed consistently (on around seven in eight occasions or more)


Additional information