SoI Videos

Sounds of Intent Young Champions

R.1.A

Kasim is being exposed to a rich variety of sounds within this musical interlude. Practitioners play the flute and guitar in close proximity to him as the piano accompanies.

R.1.A

The children in this class are being exposed to a variety of sounds during this activity including the piano, voice and various instruments given to each child such as a drum and tambourine.

R.1.B

Edvard Grieg's 'In the Hall of the Mountain King' is played for Matthew, exposing him to a piece among a range of music and sound that he experiences during his music sessions.

R.1.B

Within this class the teacher plays a range of music between and within activities for the children to hear, listen and react to.

R.1.B

Within this class the teacher plays a range of music between and within activities for the children to hear, listen and react to.

R.1.C

This Year 3/4 group is taking part in an activity which combines hiding and finding instruments in an outdoor space, and playing the instruments as they are hidden and found. This is a new acoustical environment and a new activity for the class. The teacher plays the chime, while walking with Fatima. Fatima is being exposed to the sound within the context of an outdoor space of the school.

R.1.C

As Rudi is brought into the sensory suite, music is programmed to play when the door opens and the words 'Welcome to the Sensory Suite', are spoken. This exposes Rudi to music and sound in a different context as well as introducing musical sound that symbolises other things (R.3.D).

R.1.D

In the sensory suite Emily lies on a waterbed while a practitioner supports her physically. The lights of the room change colour as the music plays and the practitioner holds small strings of lights for Emilie to see, which also change colour.

R.1.D

This is a combined session of music and physiotherapy. Here, the children are being exposed to music that is linked to movement as the therapists and practitioners assist the children in their exercises.

R.2.A

R has a severe visual impairment as well as sensory neural hearing loss, but he may respond to some sounds. Here, he has placed the omnichord on his legs as the teacher plays for him. He shows an awareness of the sound, focusing on the vibration that he is feeling on his legs and as he touches the strings. His awareness is further demonstrated as he takes the teacher's hand and brings it back to the instrument, after the teacher has stopped playing.

R.2.A

M is visually impaired and has profound sensory hearing loss. She is non-verbal and uses limited non-symbolic communication. She enjoys exploring objects. Here, as the teacher plays the djembe M brings the bottom of the instrument close to her head, exploring and reacting to the tactile qualities of the instrument and of the vibration in sound that she experiences.

R.2.A

As the teacher sings to E, she shows a response to the sound through the movement of her mouth and tongue.

R.2.B

Usman appears to differentiate between the sound of the two instruments presented to him. When the shaker and bells are offered to him by his music therapist, Usman reaches out for the shaker after hearing this instrument in comparison to the bells. The music therapist allows Usman ample time to listen to each instrument and respond with his preference.

R.2.B

Darryl has a variety of non-verbal communication strategies including facial expression, vocalisation and body language. During music he shows an interest in the keyboard and drum. Here, as the drum gets louder and the teaching assistant claps, Darryl becomes excited in reaction to the change in sound.

R.2.B

As the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe' on the piano, he builds on the texture and increases the dynamic. Shivan reacts to the changes in sound and gets excited, sitting up, rocking and smiling. Shivan repeatedly shows a similar response to these types of changes in sound, which can be seen again in an earlier session.

R.2.B

As the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe' on the piano, he builds on the texture and increases dynamic. Shivan reacts to the changes in sound and gets excited, sitting up, rocking and smiling.

R.2.D

For this student with a visual impairment, the practitioner combines song and light. As the practitioner sings to the pupil, 'Look at the light…', moving a small light above her head, the pupil smiles in response.

R.2.D

This is a year 3/4 class, which always begins with the teacher going around the outside of the circle, behind the children playing an instrument, at different tempi, but always slow to start with, combining both auditory and visual stimuli. A different instrument is used each week, to test out the different response, quiet shaky, etc. This could be tried without the sound to separate out the visual from the auditory stimulus. Here Iqra and Fatima track in slightly different ways. Fatima hardly misses a moment, tracking with her eyes while Iqra, who often opts out by putting her head down or hiding her eyes, does raise her head and look in the right place from time to time. Both smile to support the suggestion that they are actively and independently engaged.

R.2.D

In the sensory suite Rudi lies on a soft mat next to a column of bubbles that change colour when a switch is pressed. Rudi taps his hand against the floor, indicating that he would like more. As his teacher helps him to press the switch, the bubbles light up and change colour and the music becomes louder. Rudi smiles in response.

R.2.D

When the teacher begins to move the drum, causing the beads to roll and rattle, Aisya moves her head closer to the instrument and its sound and gently hits the drum with her hands.

R.2.D

This is a Year 3/4 class, which always begins with the teacher going around the outside of the circle, behind the children, playing an instrument, at different tempi, but slow to start with. A different instrument is used each week, to test out the different response: quiet, shaky, etc. This could be tried without the sound to separate out the impacts of the visual from the auditory stimulus. Ibraheem tends to ignore what is going on, and this activity was used to gain his full attention. Ibraheem, seated in the centre, tracks the sound of a shaker, with his eyes and by turning his head around the circle, which is very unusual for him. As the activity becomes faster his response changes, he begins to smile and laugh, which has not been seen before in class. The additional sensory input of the sight of the teacher moving around the circle supports the response to sound.

R.2.D

The children in this clip react to sound that is also felt as they lie and sit upon the resonance boards on which the teacher and her assistants tap. (From the DVD Sound Moves by the RNIB, 1998.)

R.3.B

Bulbul shows a response to the repetition of the teacher's drumming by vocalising between the deliberate pauses she makes.

R.3.B

Aisya anticipates the pattern of the teacher repeating the drum, putting her hands to her ears.

R.3.C

Shivan laughs in response to the increased tempo of the song 'Fare thee Well', being sung and played for him.

R.3.D

While in the multisensory room Grace engages in representational play with a practitioner. She pretends to go to sleep and wake up in the morning, responding to the sounds of 'beep, beep, beep, beep', which represent the sound of an alarm.

R.3.D

Objects of reference are used to symbolise a place and person. In the first portion of the clip bells are used to indicate a classroom. Next, the sound of a bird tweet, which the teacher plays, symbolises the pupil, Natasha. When Natasha hears the song and sound of the bird tweet, she reaches out for it, responding and understanding that it is her sound.

R.4.B

Romy responds, smiling and vocalising, when she hears the repetition of the short piece written for her "Romy we're singing your song, now it's time to use your thumb". She also vocalises back the phrase after hearing it played on the piano (I.4.B)

R.4.C

Romy's father plays two motifs coherently at the piano, an ascending chromatic scale that transitions into a theme from Aaron Copland's 'Rodeo'. As Romy hears and recognises the juxtaposition of these motifs, she shakes her hands in excitement and laughs. Romy also plays theses motifs on the piano, combining them coherently (P.4.C).

R.5.A

Theo shows a preference for the song he would like to hear by humming "Oh Susannah". (Theo also uses sound to symbolise other things, R.3.D and musical motifs to symbolise things, R.4.D.)

R.5.A

Theo becomes excited, smiling, laughing and running toward his mum as he hears and recognises "Postman Pat" being played on the piano. His reaction indicates a preference for this piece of music.

R.5.B

Ben shows a particular reaction to the structure of this orchestral piece by Rodrigo, laughing in response to the descending scale that he hears. He shows this reaction over a number of session within this particular piece, validating his response. (See Ben show a similar response to Rodrigo in another session.)

R.5.B

As Adam plays Beethoven's 'Für Elise', Romy listens intently, moving closer to the piano and watching with great focus. She is familiar with the piece and its structure, having a preference for the first section rather than the major section that follows. She tries to stop her teacher from playing this portion of the piece by repeatedly playing two notes in the bass of the piano before reaching out and physically moving Adam's hands.

R.5.D

Shivan responds to the 'goodbye' song, recognising that it means the end of the session. He shows an understanding of the song's connotation by reaching out towards his teacher and a recognition of the song as he rocks in his chair.

P.1.A

Brandon is 5 years old. He has severe visual impairment but has light perception and may have some awareness of shadows. He moves his mouth and tongue to vocalise softly, and his teachers are working with him to increase the volume of his vocalisations. Here Brandon is working with Soundbeam. The Soundbeam is directed towards Brandon's right hand so that his slight hand movements will create sound. At this stage one is not able to tell if Brandon connects the movement of his fingers to the sound that he creates. Brandon was given ample time in this thirty minute session to explore Soundbeam and fluctuated between levels of movement and sound. To see how Brandon's movements became larger and more observably purposeful later in the session, please go to I.2.B.

P.1.B

The practitioner helps E create sound with the shaker through co-active movement.

P.1.B

This is a combined session of music and physiotherapy for children with PMLD and developmental delay, in which music is used along with movement. Here, the physiotherapist helps Romilly to create sound by tapping two sticks together through co-active movement. She sits behind Romilly, enabling her to use the same muscle set required for the movement in Romilly's arms, while also holding her head for support. The practitioner seated to the left can also be seen to be using co-active movement in the same way.

P.1.C

In the outdoor garden of the school, E is encouraged to play the bells in front of her by using a switch placed behind her head. When the switch is pressed, the bells rotate, creating sound. As E is still learning to use her head switch at this stage, the teacher presses the switch for her.

P.1.D

E is taking part in a multi-sensory activity which promotes sound through the use of Optimusic. This is a technology in which sound is activated by a sensor when the user breaks the coloured beam of light. E's teaching assistant is also helping her to produce sound through co-active movement (see P.1.B).

P.2.A

Mathew moves his hand over a Midi-Block, creating the sound of a piano as he does so. The activity is taking place in a music room, different from the usual classroom context, relating the experience also to element P.2.C.

P.2.A

Shafiq moves his fingers on the table, creating a scratching sound as he does so. (To see how the teacher takes this movement and sound and makes it interactive please go to I.2.A.)

P.2.A

Brandon is 5 years old. He has severe visual impairment but may have some light perception and awareness of shadows. He moves his mouth and tongue to vocalise softly, and his teachers are working with him to increase the volume of his vocalisations. Here Brandon works with Soundbeam. The Soundbeam is directed towards Brandon's right hand, and when his gestures become larger, a greater range of sounds are created. The Soundbeam has been used with Brandon to increase his awareness of intentionally making sound. This clip shows a progression of more observable purposeful movement in comparison to earlier in the session, which can be seen in P.1.A.

P.2.A

S plays the keyboard intentionally. He makes sounds in different ways and with varying dynamics, using his left hand to strike the keys and his fingers to play with a gentler touch.

P.2.A

L is 11 years old. He has no sight but uses speech and often repeats phrases. He sings and is able to pick up a tune and rhythm quickly. He sometimes attempts to pick out a tune on the keyboard while listening to it. He absorbs things and may show his understanding of something in time. L has a preference for classical music and loves opera and goes to bed while listening to an opera CD. Here, L plays the switch intentionally, using his left hand, creating the sounds of bells and a drum.

P.2.A

Walid plays the drum, gently scratching the instrument with his fingers. The drum is placed in a angle so that he is able to better access the instrument to create sound.

P.2.B

Usman's vocalisations appear to express the happiness that can also be seen in his expression as his music therapist vocalizes and plays the guitar in response.

P.2.C

S plays the chimes in the outdoor 'sound garden' of his school. This is a different environment from his experiences of playing the keyboard and switches during his weekly soundbeam session. (See P.2.B to view S playing the keyboard.)

P.2.C

Jamie plays the xylophone within the context of his classroom at a special needs school and again produces sound in the context of a gamelan ensemble at London's South Bank with children from a mainstream school.

P.2.D

Abi creates sound as part of a multi-sensory activity with the use of Optimusic. She holds a paddle independently, breaking the coloured beam of light, which is programmed to activate sound through a sensor. Abi's hand grasp and arm movement to create sound independently is highly significant for her. She is being supported by the adults singing, "what sound have you got?", accompanied by the keyboard.

P.2.D

In a different environment from the classroom - this one is dark and quiet, with peripheral disturbance excluded as far as possible - there is a moving colourful projection onto a fine white material that hangs from the ceiling. Soundbeam is set up to the side to catch the movement of the material. La Shay has the opportunity to interact with the visual and tactile element of the material here, and if she does so will then get a musical response. She moves the material, creating sound.

P.2.D

This is a Year 3/4 class in a whole group activity, designed to create sound by means of tactile and visual elements (holding and shaking brightly coloured material to move the sound making object). Iqra helps to shake the material, causing the bells to jingle. Ibraheem, seated to the right, tracks the teacher with his eyes. He is being exposed to the sound of the bells as well as the feel of the draft created by the shaking of the material (R.2.D).

P.3.A

Romy creates patterns in pitch playing notes with the same name up and down all octaves of the piano.

P.3.A

Romy plays an interval of a fourth (G and C) repeating this pattern ascending the keyboard.

P.3.B

Bulbul plays the drum, creating a simple pattern through a regular beat.

P.3.B

Hannah is seven years old with SLD and impaired social communication skills in association with a general developmental delay. Hannah can hum melodies after hearing them a few times and music is one of the only things that really holds her attention. Hannah creates simple patterns on the drum, alternating playing with mallets held in her right and left hands.

P.3.C

Yesef is eight years old with ASD and associated speech and language and social communication difficulties. He is able to sing melodies and phrases and enjoys playing the drums with increased tempo and dynamics. Yesef plays the drum with mallets, one in each hand. He increases the speed of his playing intentionally from slow to fast. He enjoyed and repeated this pattern of playing a number of times during the session.

P.3.C

Shivan is learning to play an ascending and descending pattern of notes (C, D, E, F G, G, G, F, E, D, C) on the piano with help from his teacher.

P.3.C

Shivan plays an ascending scale, using his left hand.

P.3.D

The practitioner sings, 'Who's sitting next to me on my left'. Each child has a sound-maker, which represents his or her name. When it is David's turn, he plays his instrument to signify that he is present.

P.3.D

Zoe has a fine gauze placed over her. When the teacher sings 'Where oh where can Zoe be?', Zoe responds by making sound with a crinkly pillow that she is holding, at which point the teacher pulls the material away while counting to three. Zoe uses the sound to communicate where she is.

P.4.A

Rebecca plays a rhythmic motif while strumming the guitar. She repeats this a number of times.

P.4.B

Romy takes a phrase (C, D, E, F, G, G, G,F, E, D, C) that she often plays and varies the ending, placing it in minor (C, D, E, F, G, G followed by A, G, F, E, D).

P.4.B

Freddie plays a five note motif (five finger exercise) on the piano. He repeats the motif, ascending the keyboard chromatically, playing and singing in a number of keys. Freddie has absolute pitch, allowing him to play the notes 'silently' while singing the pitches accurately in the correct sequence, as he hears them.

P.4.B

David is six years old with autism. He is working on taking part in group music classes, singing and vocalising. He is very quickly learning to sing at pitch and is demonstrating an increasing enjoyment of music sessions. Here, David is playing a rhythmic motif, as the teacher chants a phrase 'jelly on a plate'. David repeats the motif on the tambourine and varies it slightly.

P.4.C

Romy repeats the motif of a theme from Aaron Copland's 'Rodeo', followed by a chromatic scale, descending the length of the keyboard. The two motifs she plays in succession transition smoothly from one to another.

P.4.C

Amy sings a 'potpourri' song, in which she links together phrases and motifs from different songs and nursery rhymes together, creating a coherent whole.

P.4.D

Theo hums the tune of "Twinkle, twinkle little star" to tell his mother that he is going to nibble his biscuit into the shape of a star, using the musical motif to symbolise and communicate the shape. Throughout the session Theo used many sounds and musical motifs to symbolise things when communicating. (See P.4.C to see Theo using sound to symbolise things.)

P.4.D

Shivan has come to use the motif of a scale to symbolise 'more' music. When the teacher pauses between playing phrases of the 'Hornpipe', Shivan plays a scale, requesting more. He smiles as the teacher responds to his request and continues to play.

P.4.D

Music is being used here along with objects of reference. As the student holds a cup in his hand he vocalises a tune, as the teacher and her assistants sing 'Have a drink, have a drink…'.

P.4.D

The percussionist reinforces a verbal/sung dialogue with Tyrone through the use of rhythm. She begins the conversation by singing and drumming 'Hello Tyrone'. Tyrone responds each time with a rhythmic motif, which symbolises the verbal 'hello' response.

P.4.D

Oliver taps a rhythm to substitute for speech. Here he taps a rhythm for the phrase, 'Thank you very much indeed'.

P.5.A

Michael is thirteen years old. He has absolute pitch, an extremely good musical memory, is able to remember tunes he's heard before in the right key, and can create his own tunes and improvise on them. He has taken the Associated Board Preparatory test. Music is a very important part of Michael's life. Here, Michael plays "Boating Lake" on the piano, using both left and right hands, for the ABRSM prep test. He learned the piece by ear, supported by enlarged notation. (See Michael playing a piece he has composed, P.5.C, and improvising with his teacher I.5.D.)

P.5.A

During his lesson Freddie plays a number of short pieces on the piano that he is learning. Here he plays the piece entitled 'Hopping'. (Also see Freddy improvising P.5.B and working on piano technique (P.5.D).

P.5.A

Liam sings a song by Queen as he accompanies himself by playing the harmony on the omnichord. Liam has a special affinity for music and excels at learning tunes by ear. (To see Liam accompany his teacher go to I.5.B.)

P.5.B

Freddie has been singing and playing the tune of 'Twinkle, twinkle little star'. He begins to sing, improvising and ornamenting the melody in various keys, always in tune and in time.

P.5.C

Michael is thirteen years old. He has absolute pitch, an extremely good musical memory, is able to remember tunes he's heard before in the right key, and can create his own tunes and improvise on them. He has taken the Associated Board Preparatory test. Music is a very important part of Michael's life. In this clip, Michael is playing, from memory, a piece he previously composed for the piano, in which there are different variations of the main melody. Only one variation is shown here. He also plays in different keys and with further variations of the melody. He plays this piece, maintaining his part, while being accompanied by the music therapist (also I.5.B).

P.5.C

When asked if he knows any songs from his music class about trains Theo begins to hum "I've been working on the railroad". Theo recreates this piece, which is linked to the external associations of his music class and of trains.

P.5.D

Freddie works on piano technique with his teacher, playing a five finger exercise. The exercise is repeated, ascending the keyboard chromatically. Freddie has absolute pitch, allowing him to play the notes 'silently' while singing the pitches accurately in the correct sequence, as he hears them. (Freddie's variation and repetition of this five note motif also applies to P.4.B.)

P.5.D

Freddie sings and plays major scales on the piano in different keys ascending and descending, alternating between his right and left hand, working on technique with his teacher.

P.5.D

Freddie sings and plays chromatic scales on the piano, working on his technical skills. Freddie works on a number of piano exercises including major and minor scales, five finger exercises, whole tone scales etc.

P.5.D

The teacher guides Romy in learning a C major ascending scale in her right hand.

P.5.D

Romy is working with her teacher, learning to play Brahms's 'Variations on a Theme by Haydn'. Aspects of her technique are of particular focus such as playing with both right and left hands and the melodic endings of phrases.

P.6.A

Na Wan Plays Liszt's Liebestraum No. 3 in Ab on the piano with a high level of skill and expression.

P.6.A

Derek, aged ten in this clip, plays a version of 'A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square' on the piano, with advanced technical skill and expression. (See Derek improvising at a later stage in his musical development P.6.B.)

I.1.A

As Matthew vocalises his teacher responds empathetically, imitating his vocalisation as well as expanding on it. Mathew's repeated vocalisation, after he has heard the teacher, also indicates that he vocalises in response to what he hears (I.2.A), demonstrating that his level of musical development lies at and between both Levels 1 and Levels 2 of the Sounds of Intent framework.

I.1.A

The teacher responds to Haley's hand movement across the drum by imitating the same movement, creating a similar sound. She also prompts the interaction by singing 'Listen to Haley'.

I.1.B

The teacher and practitioners model interaction using imitation. The teacher plays a simple pattern on the drum. Each practitioner holds a drum as they are seated next to each pupil, modelling a response by copying the patterns that are introduced.

I.1.B

The teacher and practitioners model interaction using imitation. The teacher plays a simple pattern on the drum followed by a vocalisation. Each practitioner holds a drum as they are seated next to each pupil, modelling a response by copying the rhythmic and vocal patterns that are introduced.

I.1.B

In this clip, taken from an informational film entitled Sound Moves by the RNIB (1998), the practitioners model a call and response interaction through patterns of vocalisation. (The children in this clips are at different levels of ability, those with more complex needs applying more specifically to Level 1 of the framework here.)

I.2.A

Mathew's repeated vocalisation, after he has heard the teacher's empathetic vocal response (I.1.A), indicates that he is creating sound in response to what he hears (I.2.A).

I.2.A

As the music therapist sings hello, Usman vocalises and smiles in response.

I.2.A

Aisha is thirteen. She loves music, particularly playing the drums and has a good sense of rhythm. She often appears to switch off in class only to show that she has absorbed the content of the lesson, for example, later singing a song. As far as is known, this was the first time that Aisha was presented with a keyboard in this context. On being presented with the keyboard she spontaneously began to play. Aisha pauses during her playing, but comes back to it by hearing and turning towards the sounds made by the teacher, demonstrating that she is responding to the sounds she hears. She produces pure sound for sound's sake, rather than responding in imitation.

I.2.A

The teacher uses a microphone to emulate the scratching sound Shafiq makes with his fingers on the tray. Shafiq smiles, moving his fingers to create sound in response. Refer to P.2.A to see how the teacher's use of the microphone has created more observable intention and an interaction in the sound that is created by Shafiq. (Also see I.2.B to see how the teacher moved this interaction to vocalization next.)

I.2.A

As the teacher sings 'hello' to Abigail, she plays the bell in response. Here she holds the bell without any assistance, in comparison to earlier sessions in which Abi can be seen playing a small shaker fixed to her wrist as she could not independently grip an instrument. Abi also creates sound independently within a multisensory activity (P.2.D).

I.2.A

As the teacher sings to Abi, she creates sound with a shaker that is tied to her wrist. She makes sound independently and in response to the singing of the teacher. Abi appreciates her movement creates sound. (See Abi creating sound within a multisensory activity under the element of P.2.D.)

I.2.A

After the practitioner plays the castanets, Walid responds to the sound, gently playing the instrument in return. The practitioner allows ample time for Walid to respond to her playing.

I.2.B

Shafiq vocalises, pausing for the teacher to respond and then continues with the interaction, vocalising a number of times, pausing for the teacher, and smiling as he receives a response as well. (Shafiq also creates sound in response to another, I.2.A. To see how the teacher's engagement with Shafiq has created more observable interactive intention here, go to P.2.A.)

I.2.B

After the teacher chants 'Ready, steady' followed by playing a fast pattern on the drum, Hannah laughs and at the second repetition of 'Ready Steady' hits the drum (at 00:19) so that the teacher will play again.

I.3.A

A is eleven years old. She is using PECS to develop her communication skills. She doesn't use speech but is working on giving eye contact when an adult is talking to her. She loves being imitated and is very motivated by music and is also working on developing her play skills. A creates a simple pattern, vocalising on the syllable 'ba', within her normal repertoire of sounds, which her music therapist imitates with her voice and supports on the piano. A shows an awareness of her sound being imitated as she continues to take part in the interaction. She was engaged in this vocalisation over a thirty minute period, showing a particularly high level of engagement for her.

I.3.A

Shivan plays the piano during pauses that the teacher leaves in between phrases. Shivan's response to play in the spaces left for him and his continuation in the interaction indicates that he is aware of the sounds he makes on the piano being imitated.

I.3.B

The music therapist has been singing to Usman throughout this session. Here, Usman's vocalisations gradually demonstrate an imitation of the vocalisations made by the music therapist. The imitation here is not directed towards a definitive pattern as in I.3.D, but in sound.

I.3.B

A is eleven years old. She is using PECS to develop her communication skills. She doesn't use speech but is working on giving eye contact when an adult is talking to her. She loves being imitated, is very motivated by music and is also working on developing her play skills. Here, A interacts with her music therapist, vocalising. She shows an awareness of her sound being imitated (I.3.A) by her continuing to create sounds in order to be imitated. However, here she also imitates the sounds she hears. A first vocalises on the syllable 'ba' but when the music therapist plays an A on the piano (00:10), A begins to sing in vowels and finds the pitch she hears.

I.3.D

Shivan imitates the vocal pattern 'mi mi mi mi mi' sung by the practitioner.

I.3.D

Theo and the practitioner engage in a dialogue, vocalising on the syllable "buh". The practitioner initiates the word "bobbly" which Theo imitates, laughing and enjoying the interaction. (See Theo using sound to symbolise things I.3.D and using musical motifs to symbolise things P.4.D.)

I.3.D

This is a group of children from Key Stage 3, who meet together once a week to sing. At this point the class had not been meeting very long but were enthusiastic. They do a short warm-up followed by songs to sing and sign. The warm up tends to be different every week. Here the pupils follow the lead of the teacher, some able to imitate different patterns of vocal sounds.

I.3.D

Shivan vocalises short motifs and taps the drum. When the practitioner sings his name Shivan imitates her, singing the pattern of a descending major third that he has just heard. This interaction also contains elements of P.4.A as Shivan vocalises groups of musical sounds.

I.4.A

Romy plays a short motif, each time in a different key, pausing and waiting for her teacher to respond.

I.4.A

Romy plays simple motifs on the piano, pausing and waiting for her teacher to respond in imitation.

I.4.B

The teacher introduces a motif on the piano, which Romy imitates in return.

I.4.B

This is a mixed ability class group, ages sixteen to eighteen, in their regularly weekly music lesson. They have been playing drums throughout the term in different ways and are learning about Africa in world studies. The class has been playing simple rhythmic patterns which they have been practising over a few weeks. Here Laura and Nancy are drumming a simple rhythm and an underpinning regular beat. An interaction between the two can be seen here as Laura (seated to the right) watches and listens to Nancy, using imitation in playing and maintaining the pattern.

I.4.B

The teacher plays an ascending chromatic scale on the piano. Freddie responds, imitating the teacher by singing an ascending and descending chromatic scale using the same notes.

I.4.C

Shivan completes the musical motifs being sung to him by the practitioner. After leaving pauses after phrases such as 'I hear…', Shivan responds with the musical motif that follows... 'thunder'. Shivan's ability to juxtapose musical motifs coherently also refers to P.4.B. (Also see Shivan juxtapose motifs coherently with another while playing the piano.)

I.4.C

Romy plays an Ab on each octave of the piano, ascending. When the teacher begins playing an arpeggio in the bass, Romy responds coherently by playing a motif she is familiar with ("Habanera" from Bizet's Carmen) in the right hand. She uses a musical motif that corresponds with what the teacher introduced.

I.4.C

Shivan plays an ascending scale after which the teacher plays the 'Hornpipe', in the same key. Shivan responds by playing a C major scale again, transitioning between these two motifs smoothly. Shivan can also be seen to juxtapose musical motifs vocally in sessions he had years earlier. Shivan's ability to combine two motifs coherently also applies to P.4.B.

I.4.C

The teacher plays the first section of the motif of the 'Entertainer' on the piano. Romy completes the phrase, continuing the melody. She is able to concentrate and hear the motif the teacher plays, even though she is playing a different motif at the same time. Her ability to process new material that is presented to her while she plays shows a keen sense of concentration and awareness. This interaction also represents turn taking and playing simultaneously (I.4.D)

I.4.D

Shivan sings musical motifs from the song 'Slowly' from All Join In, simultaneously with his teacher. While clearly illustrating the element of I.4.D this interaction also involves a number of other elements. For example, Shivan sings the motif 'slowly, slowly, going slowly', repeating it a number of times (P.4.B) and shows a recognition of the coherent juxtaposition of musical motifs (R.4.C) as well as juxtaposing motifs as he sings, continuing phrases that are introduced.

I.4.D

Romy and her teacher play the keyboard in a clear interaction of turn-taking, emphasised by Romy's waiting for her teacher's response and taking his hand and placing it on the keyboard when it is his turn to play.

I.4.D

After the teacher plays the theme of Mozart's Sonata in A Major, K.331, Romy picks up the phrase, playing simultaneously with her teacher.

I.4.D

Shivan and his teacher interact, taking turns. Shivan plays a note on the piano and waits for his teacher to respond with phrases from the song 'We Will Rock You', before answering again and forming a pattern of turn-taking.

I.5.A

This lunchtime vocal group sings 'Kumbaya' together while accompanied by the teacher at the piano.

I.5.A

Myles possesses absolute pitch and a very strong musical memory. At the time of the recording, Myles had been taking cello lessons for seven years, first learning on an adapted instrument with an extra long spike. Over this time he gained the necessary confidence to play his cello with an independent piano accompaniment and performed to his peers and at school concerts in a variety of ensembles as well as accompanying a school choir on his own, playing a simple repeated phrase. Myles also plays alongside his peers at a music centre. Playing by ear is a feature of his playing and he can also improvise original music. Here, Miles plays the cello, sharing a part with others. Although the ensemble cannot be seen in the clip the other parts can be heard. (See a demonstration of Miles playing the cello, maintaining an independent part in I.5.B.)

I.5.B

Liam is eight years old with ASD and associated speech and language difficulties. He shows a special affinity for music, significantly in comparison with other skills and interests. As the teacher sings the song "Crazy Little Thing Called Love" by Queen, Liam accompanies, playing the omnichord. This is a song Liam learned the day before the clip was filmed, demonstrating an ability to learn quickly by ear. (See Liam sing and accompany himself, I.5.A.)

I.5.B

Nicole plays the melody of "She'll Be Coming Round the Mountain" with her right hand on the piano while her teacher provides the left hand accompaniment. Nicole plays the piece in the key of F# Major.

I.5.B

Romy plays the melody of Brahms 'Variations on a Theme by Haydn' using both right and left hand at times, as her teacher provides accompaniment. Romy is still in the process of learning the piece fully but she shows a development in her ability to play whole pieces here rather than only motifs or fragments of pieces (See Romy at Level 4).

I.5.B

Myles possesses absolute pitch and a very strong musical memory. At the time of the recording, Myles had been taking cello lessons for seven years, first learning on an adapted instrument with an extra long spike. Over this time he gained the necessary confidence to play his cello with an independent piano accompaniment and performed to his peers and at school concerts in a variety of ensembles as well as accompanying a school choir on his own, playing a simple repeated phrase. Myles also plays alongside his peers at a music centre. Playing by ear is a feature of his playing and he can also improvise original music. Here, Myles plays the cello as part of a string ensemble, maintaining his part in a round of "Frere Jacques". (To see Miles improvise within this session go to I.5.C.)

I.5.C

Romy plays 'If You're Happy and You Know It' on the piano, modulating into different keys and slightly varying the melody at times as her teacher provides an accompaniment.

I.5.C

Myles possesses absolute pitch and a very strong musical memory. At the time of the recording, Myles had been taking cello lessons for seven years, first learning on an adapted instrument with an extra long spike. Over this time he gained the necessary confidence to play his cello with an independent piano accompaniment and performed to his peers and at school concerts in a variety of ensembles, as well as accompanying a school choir on his own by playing a simple repeated phrase. Myles also plays alongside his peers at a music centre. Playing by ear is a feature of his playing and he can also improvise original music. Here, Myles plays the cello as part of a string ensemble. In this ensemble, each player is given an opportunity to improvise over a tonic-dominant ostinato that is provided.

I.5.C

Nick, who has absolute pitch, improvises with his teacher. As Nick is seated at one piano and his teacher at the other, he listens to the key changes being led by the teacher, playing with and varying what he hears. Sometimes he deliberately plays in the wrong key!

I.5.D

Michael is thirteen years old. He has absolute pitch, an extremely good musical memory. He is able to remember tunes he's heard before in the right key, and can create his own tunes and improvise on them. He has taken the Associated Board Preparatory test. Music is a very important part of Michael's life. In this clip Michael improvises on the piano with his music therapist, in the unusual key of Bb minor (referred to by Michael here as the enharmonic key of A# minor), which he has chosen. Michael plays both melodic fragments and chords, which his music therapist builds on. Michael offers a new key of B minor for the improvisation. He particularly loves the move of the semitone.

I.6.D

Nick plays the cello, rehearsing with a local community orchestra for the evening's concert. He attends the orchestra regularly.